Hematuria is the medical term for the presence of blood in the urine.
Hematuria is the medical term for the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria is not a disease, but a sign of certain diseases.
Hematuria can be known from changes in the color of urine or urine to redness ( gross hematuria ). Or it could be that the urine remains clear but red blood cells are found from urine examination in the laboratory ( microscopic hematuria ).
There are many diseases that can cause hematuria, including:
- Urinary tract infection (in the kidney or in the bladder)
- Kidney stones
- Stones in the bladder
- Prostate enlargement
- Bladder, kidney, or prostate cancer
- Excessive exercise
As an initial examination, it is necessary to carry out routine urine tests in the laboratory to ensure the presence of hematuria. This disorder is characterized by the discovery of red blood cells in routine urine examinations. The next examination is to determine the cause.
If it is suspected that the hematuria is caused by an infection, sometimes it is necessary to do a urine culture examination to find out for sure the bacteria that is causing the infection.
If urinary tract stones are suspected to be the cause, an X-ray examination using contrast, namely BNO-IVP, needs to be done to see whether there are stones and the location of the stones. In addition, a CT scan can also be done.
If the cause is suspected to be an enlarged prostate, the doctor can perform a digital rectal examination and ultrasound of the prostate to determine the size of the prostate. If cancer is suspected as the cause of the hematuria, a CT scan of the urinary tract with contrast administration needs to be done to determine the presence of a tumor and its location.
Gross hematuria causes urine to turn reddish or brown in color due to the large number of red blood cells in the urine, however, in microscopic hematuria, urine can remain clear yellow in color.
Hematuria caused by urinary tract infections or stones in the urinary tract is often accompanied by symptoms of back pain or pain when urinating. However, hematuria caused by tumors in the urinary tract is usually not accompanied by pain.
Treatment of hematuria depends heavily on the underlying cause. If it is caused by an infection, then the main treatment is with antibiotics.
If it is caused by stones in the urinary tract, the treatment depends on the location of the stones and their size. In most cases, ESWL ( Extra Shock Wave Lithotripsy ) therapy or surgical removal of stones is required.
Hematuria caused by an enlarged prostate is treated with drugs to reduce the size of the prostate, such as alpha-blockers. However, if it does not improve with medication, surgical removal of the prostate (prostatectomy) needs to be done.
Treatment of hematuria caused by cancer depends on the location and stage of the cancer. But generally, the treatment is surgery and chemotherapy.
In general, hematuria can be prevented by maintaining urinary tract health. The method is:
- Drink adequate amounts (1.5–2 liters per day)
- Avoid exposure to cigarette acid which can make a person more susceptible to cancer
- Avoid exposure to unsafe chemicals, for example drinking water containing arsenic or consuming supplements whose ingredients are not clear, because they can increase the risk of bladder cancer.