Influenza diseases :: Host and Care


Influenza (flu) is an inflammatory reaction of the respiratory tract caused by a viral infection. Here are the symptoms, causes, and how to treat it


Medical specialistGeneral practitioner, ENT specialist, pulmonologist
SymptomFever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, stuffy nose, headache, tired easily
risk factorChildren aged 6 months to 5 years, elderly over 65 years, weak immune system, have asthma
How to diagnosePhysical examination and clinical signs that appear
TreatmentGet enough rest, consume nutritious food, antiviral drugs, cold medicines, antitussive drugs
DrugAntiviral, analgesic/antipyretic, NSAID, antitussive, decongestant
ComplicationsEar infections, bronchitis, secondary bacterial pneumonia, a cute respiratory distress syndrome, myositis, myocarditis
When to see a doctor?Shortness of breath, persistent pain in the chest or stomach, cramps, severe muscle pain, unable to urinate


Influenza (which is often called the flu ) is an infectious disease that attacks the throat, nose, and also the lungs.

People suffering from flu infection may experience headaches, fever, stuffy or runny nose, runny nose, and also coughing.


Influenza is a respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. 

These microorganisms infect the nose, throat, and lungs.

A person can be infected with this virus if they accidentally inhale droplets or splashes of water when the sufferer coughs or sneezes. 

Touching your nose or mouth with hands that are contaminated with the virus can also make you catch the flu. 

Influenza Symptom

Influenza symptoms in general are:

  • fever
  • cough
  • sore throat
  • increased production of nasal mucus
  • nasal congestion
  • headache
  • tired easily
  • diarrhea
  • nausea and vomiting

Risk Factors

There are several groups that are more susceptible to the flu, namely:

  • children aged 6 months to 5 years and adults aged over 65 years
  • people with weakened immune system conditions ( HIV /AIDS, leukemia, etc.)
  • asthmatics
  • have chronic lung disease 
  • obesity


Diagnosis of the flu can be based on existing clinical symptoms. Plus, there is a history of contact with people who have similar symptoms.

Suspicion can increase if the symptoms appear during “flu season”, such as in the rainy season or winter. 


Here are some ways to deal with influenza.

  • Most cases can heal on their own. Sufferers will be advised to get enough rest and consume nutritious food to boost immunity.
  • For influenza A and B, you can use antiviral drugs such as oseltamivir and zanamivir.
  • Treat according to symptoms, such as NSAIDs for inflammation, cold medicines for nasal mucus production, and antitussive drugs for cough symptoms.

Related Drugs

  • Antivirus: Oseltamivir, zanamivir
  • Analgesic/antipyretic: paracetamol
  • NSAIDS: Diclofenac sodium, mefenamic acid, ibuprofen
  • Antitussives: dextromethorphan, codeine phosphate
  • Decongestants: pseudoephedrine


You now know what influenza is. So, how to prevent transmission? Usually, the doctor will suggest some of these things:

  • flu vaccination
  • carry out a clean and healthy lifestyle
  • prevent touching the eyes, nose and mouth to prevent the spread of germs
  • wash hands using clean water and soap or alcohol if soap is not available


Even though it can heal by itself, a flu infection that is not handled properly can cause complications, such as:

  • ear infection
  • bronchitis
  • secondary bacterial pneumonia
  • acute respiratory distress syndrome / acute respiratory distress syndrome
  • myositis
  • myocarditis
  • as well as multiple organ failure

When to See a Doctor?

In children, see a doctor immediately if you notice the following symptoms:

  • fast breathing or even difficulty breathing
  • blue lips or face
  • chest pain
  • severe muscle pain
  • dehydration
  • seizures
  • fever over 40 degrees Celsius
  • fever in children under 12 weeks of age

Meanwhile, in adults, consult a doctor if you find symptoms:

  • hard to breathe
  • persistent pain in the chest or abdomen
  • persistent dizziness and disorientation
  • seizures
  • unable to urinate
  • severe muscle pain
  • fever or cough that gets better and then gets worse

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